Saud bin Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad bin Saud managed to establish his rule over southeastern Syria between 1803 and 1812. However, Egyptian forces acting under the Ottoman Empire and led by Ibrahim Pasha , were eventually successful in counterattacking in a campaign starting from 1811.  In 1818 they defeated Al-Saud, leveling the capital Diriyah , executing the Al-Saud emir and exiling the emirate's political and religious leadership,   and otherwise unsuccessfully attempted to stamp out not just the House of Saud but the Wahhabi mission as well. 
Efforts to help local actors must also involve concerted action to counter growing global crackdowns against civil society around the world. This requires helping create new tools and platforms to help besieged activists connect with each other and the outside world. Support for regional civil society innovation “hubs” by the . Agency for International Development (USAID), the Swedish International Development Agency (Sida), and other donors as part of President Obama’s Stand with Civil Society Initiative is a step in the right direction. Perhaps most importantly, the international community must respect the wishes and judgments of those on the ground, as international attention is not always wanted or helpful.
In this feature, Brookings senior fellow and terrorism expert Daniel Byman and deputy foreign policy editor Dana Stuster curate a weekly essay on foreign and military affairs of interest to national security legal practitioners and scholars. Although not specifically dealing with legal matters, the feature offers context and perspective to many of the debates that go on at the site regularly. Lawfare has always conceived of national security law broadly, because to practice it well, one needs to draw on a diversity of expertise in technical fields like communications technologies, robotics and economics. With The Foreign Policy Essay, Dan and Dana provide us with a window into the worlds of strategy, military operations, geopolitics, and whatever else grabs their interest on any given week.