Ethanol fuel research paper

As of 2005, 68% of American flex-fuel car owners were not aware they owned an E85 flex. [9] [10] Flex and non-flex vehicles looked the same. There was no price difference. American automakers did not label these vehicles. [10] [44] In contrast, all Brazilian automakers clearly labeled FFVs with text that was some variant of the word Flex. Beginning in 2007 many new FFV models in the US featured a yellow gas cap to remind drivers of the E85 capabilities. [45] [46] As of 2008, GM badged its vehicles with the text "Flexfuel/E85 Ethanol". [47] [48] Nevertheless, the . Department of Energy (DOE) estimated that in 2009 only 504,297 flex-fuel vehicles were regularly fueled with E85, and these were primarily fleet-operated vehicles. [49] As a result, only 712 million gallons were used for E85, representing just 1% of that year's ethanol consumption. [50]

But not everywhere, at least not yet. Supply can be a big problem depending on where you live. Naturally, availability is best in the Corn Belt. Minnesota residents have it made with 322 retail outlets. Wisconsinites (87), Michiganders (54), and Ohioans (46) are well set too. But as of this writing there were seven states with no E85 locations at all, mainly in New England. California of all places has only three. But it looks like the supply situation will continue to improve. While we promised we weren’t going to go there, it appears that the political winds are shifting toward a permanent commitment to ethanol fuels. Funny, isn’t it? Usually when environmental and social issues arise involving cars, hot rodders get to take it right in the neck. Not this time. Here the green solution may be the ideal performance solution as well.

Ethanol fuel research paper

ethanol fuel research paper

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