Longer essays may also contain an introductory page that defines words and phrases of the essay's topic. Most academic institutions require that all substantial facts, quotations, and other porting material in an essay be referenced in a bibliography or works cited page at the end of the text. This scholarly convention helps others (whether teachers or fellow scholars) to understand the basis of facts and quotations the author uses to support the essay's argument and helps readers evaluate to what extent the argument is supported by evidence, and to evaluate the quality of that evidence. The academic essay tests the student's ability to present their thoughts in an organized way and is designed to test their intellectual capabilities.
The Italian economy developed in four stages namely, the late middle ages, the economic background of the advent of the Italian renaissance, the economic history during the Italian renaissance and the economic status after the Italian renaissance (Hae-yoon, 2007). The late middle ages The late middle ages was composed of an agricultural society which was based on manorial. This period existed before the Italian renaissance when political chaos interfered with commerce, productivity in agriculture went down with the plague leading to death of a big population in many parts of Italy.