We all know that fears and misperceptions linger on both sides of the Pacific. Some in our country see China’s progress as a threat to the United States; some in China worry that America seeks to constrain China’s growth. We reject both those views. The fact is that a thriving America is good for China and a thriving China is good for America. We both have much more to gain from cooperation than from conflict. But you cannot build a relationship on aspirations alone. It is up to both of us to more consistently translate positive words into effective cooperation — and, crucially, to meet our respective global responsibilities and obligations. These are the things that will determine whether our relationship delivers on its potential in the years to come. We also have to be honest about our differences. We will address them firmly and decisively as we pursue the urgent work we have to do together. And we have to avoid unrealistic expectations.
The Mongols won decisive victories at Sanfengshan (9 February 1232), Yangyi (24 February 1232), and T’iehling (1 March 1232). Subutai was able to maneuver along the Jin lines of retreat and destroyed their entire army. After the battle, the top Jin general Wan-Yen Yi was captured: his last wish was to meet with Subutai to pay his respects to the legendary general.  Ögedei and the main Mongol army returned to Mongolia, leaving Subutai with a small force to complete the conquest of Henan . The heavily fortified city of Kaifeng was besieged for a year and fell in early 1233. Though the Jin were completely defeated, the Mongol besieging force ran very short on food. To solve this problem, Subutai made an alliance with Song to get help to complete the job in mid-1233. With Song help, the last Jin stronghold of Caizhou fell in 1234. But it did not take the Song long to fall out with the Mongols. Two Song armies seized Kaifeng and Luoyang during the summer of 1234. The Mongols returned, destroyed the Song armies, and retook the cities.